Information on water analysis, water samples and water tests.
By water analysis is meant an analysis that shows how your water is doing. If you are a spa or pool owner, you should perform these analyzes from time to time to see if your water is up to standard. With the help of good equipment, you can measure and analyze your bathing water. Measuring sticks, various tablets and digital instruments can help you with this.
By dipsticks is meant sticks that can analyze your bathing water. There are simple knitting needles that measure 1 value and there are more advanced knitting needles that measure 5 values per knitting needle.
By tablets is meant tablets for measuring pH and chlorine or bromine. The most common are DPD and Phenol Red.
By digital instruments is meant instruments that can analyze your water. The instruments are a little more advanced than other measurable methods and show a very reliable result.
The National Board of Health and Welfare's general advice on precautionary measures for drinking water
SOSFS 2003: 17
The information below is taken from the National Board of Health and Welfare's website >>.
Guideline values for microorganisms, chemical substances and properties in drinking water - basis for assessment of drinking water samples
Grounds for remark:
(h) = health (e) = aesthetic (t) = technical
Unless otherwise stated, the assessment applies when a content is equal to or higher than the specified guideline value.
Unless otherwise stated, samples taken in connection with normal use and turnover of the water.
|Parameter||Unit||Serviceable with remark||Unfit||Comment|
|Escherichia coli (E. coli)||Number per 100 ml||Demonstrated (h)||10 (h)||Indicates fecal contamination from humans or animals, e.g. via sewage or manure, which entails the risk of the presence of disease-causing organisms.|
|Coliform bacteria||Number per 100 ml||50 (h)||500 (h)||May indicate both feces and other contaminants that may pose a health risk.|
|Microorganisms at 22 ° C||Number per ml||1000 (h)||Indicates such contamination from water or soil that is not normally of fecal origin.|
|Chemical and physical parameters|
|Parameter||Unit||Serviceable with remark||Unfit||Comment|
|Alkalinity||mg / l HCO3||Content above 60 mg / l HCO3 reduces the risk of corrosion attack in the distribution facility.|
|Aluminum||mg / l Al||0.50 (t)||Can in groundwater indicate aluminum release from the ground due to acidic water |
(pH <5.5). May cause sludge formation in the distribution plant.
|Ammonium||mg / l NH4||0.5 (t)||May indicate impact from drains or similar. Occurs mainly in oxygen-poor conditions. Risk of nitrite formation, especially in filters and long pipe networks.|
|1.5 (h, t)||Risk of strong nitrite formation and odor.|
|Antimony||/g / l Sb||5 (h)||May indicate contamination from industry, landfill or digestate. Antimony can also be added to the water from materials in water supply installations.|
|Arsenic||/g / l As||10 (h)||May indicate impact from source of contamination. In rock-drilled wells, however, the cause is usually natural (sulphide mineral). Ev. risk of chronic health effects with long-term intake. The water should not be used for drinking or food handling.|
|Pesticides, individual||/g / l||0,10||The guideline value is applied to the content of each individual pesticide that is detected and quantified in a sample. |
For aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and heptachlorepoxide, the guideline value 0.030 µg / l is applied.
Pesticides refer to organic substances used as insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, nematocides, acaricides, algicides, rodenticides, slurries, growth regulators and similar products as well as relevant metabolites, degradation and reaction products.
May be caused by leakage from agricultural land, weed control in courtyards, along roads and railways, gardens, etc. or careless handling of funds.
|Pesticides, total content||/g / l||0,50||The guideline value is applied to the sum of the levels of all individual pesticides that are detected and quantified in a sample.|
|Lead||/g / l Pb||10 (h)||The cause is often corrosion of lead-containing materials in older property installations. Can also be an indication of the impact of industrial emissions, landfills and the like. |
Risk of chronic health effects with long-term intake, especially in young children. The water should not be used for drinking or food handling.
|Cyanide||/g / l CN||50 (h)||The guideline value refers to the total content of cyanide. Can indicate impact from industrial emissions, landfill, etc. 20dyl. The water should not be used for drinking or food handling.|
|Fluoride||mg / l F||1.3 (h)||Risk of tooth enamel stains (fluorosis). See also other comments on fluoride.|
|6.0 (h)||Risk of fluorine storage in bone tissue (osteofluorosis). The water should not be used for drinking or food handling. |
In addition, when assessing fluoride levels, the following information regarding caries protection, fluorosis risk and water consumption should always be provided:
<0.8: Drinking water provides limited caries protection.
0.8–1.2: Drinking water has a caries-preventing effect.
1.3–1.5: Drinking water has a caries-preventing effect. However, the water should not
1.6–4.0: Drinking water has a caries-preventing effect. However, the water should only be given to a limited extent to children under 1 1/2 years of age.
4.1–5.9: Drinking water should only be given to a limited extent to children under 7 years of age and only occasionally to children under 1 1/2 years of age.
|Phosphate||mg / l PO||0,6||May indicate impact from sewers, fertilizers and other sources of pollution. May also have a natural geologically determined origin.|
|Color||mg / l Pt||30 (e)||The color can be observed with the naked eye. The water probably contains iron or humus. The cause of abnormal changes should always be investigated.|
|Iron||mg / l Fe||0.50 (e, t)||Causes precipitation, discoloration and taste. May cause bad smell. Risk of damage to textiles during washing and clogged pipes. In some waters, the inconveniences can occur at both lower and higher levels than the guideline value indicates.|
|Cadmium||/g / l Cd||1.0 (h)||Occurs in groundwater in some areas with sedimentary bedrock. May be caused by corrosion of cadmium-containing materials in building installations, especially if the water is acidic (pH <5).|
|5.0 (h)||Risk of chronic health effects with long-term intake. The water should not be used for drinking or food handling.|
|Calcium||mg / l Ca||100 (t)||Between 20 and 60 mg / l reduces the risk of corrosion in the distribution plant. Disadvantages such as hardness, at remarkable levels see the parameter total hardness.|
|Potassium||mg / l K||12||Can in well water indicate impact from pollution. May also have a natural geological origin.|
|Chemical oxygen consumption CODMn||mg / l O2||8 (e)||The water contains organic material that can give smell, taste and color. Indicates the impact of surface groundwater. In a distribution plant, the disinfection effect can be impaired and microbiological growth promoted.|
|Chlorine, totally active||mg / l Cl2||0.4 (e)||Risk of odor and taste of chlorine. Occurs when disinfected with chlorine.|
|Chloride||mg / l Cl||100 (t)||Can accelerate corrosion attacks. Concentrations exceeding 50 mg / l Cl may indicate the influence of saline groundwater, sewage, landfill, road salt or road storm water.|
|300 (e, t)||Risk of taste changes.|
|Conductivity||mS / m||Is a measure of the water's total salinity. High values (> 70 mS / m) may indicate high chloride values.|
|Copper||mg / l Cu||0.20 (e, t)||Caused by corrosion on copper wires. Risk of discoloration of sanitary ware and hair (when washing hair).|
|2.0 (h, e, t)||Ev. risk of diarrhea, especially in sensitive infants. Aesthetic and technical inconveniences as above. The water (cold water) should be rinsed a few minutes before it is used for drinking and cooking, especially when preparing baby food, after prolonged downtime and in new installations.|
|Chromium||/g / l Cr||50 (h)||Can indicate impact from industrial emissions, landfill, etc. Chronic health effects are not known, but can not be ruled out. The purpose of the guideline is to limit the contribution of drinking water to the total intake of chromium. The water should not be used for drinking or food handling.|
|Quicksilver||/g / l Hg||1.0 (h)||Can indicate impact from industrial emissions, landfill, etc. Ev. risk of chronic health effects with long-term intake. The water should not be used for drinking or food handling.|
|Smell||Clear (s)||Slight odor indicates effect. Normally, the assessment is made after examination at 20 ° C, but can be done at 50 ° C for any reason (eg complaints).|
|Clear (h)||The assessment is made when a foreign odor indicates that the water is so polluted that it should not be used as drinking water.|
|Very strong||The assessment is made when the smell makes the water obviously disgusting.|
|Magnesium||mg / l Mg||30 (e)||Risk of taste changes.|
|Manganese||mg / l Mn||0.30 (e, t)||May form precipitates in water pipes, which when loosened give discolored (black) water. Risk of damage to textiles when washing.|
|Sodium||mg / l Na||100 (t)||May indicate influence from relic salt water or sea water. Can also be caused by softening by ion exchange with sodium.|
|200 (e, t)||Risk of taste changes.|
|Nickel||/g / l Ni||20 (h)||May occur naturally in acidic groundwater. Can also indicate that the raw water has been polluted by industries.|
|Nitrate||mg / l NO3||20 (t)||Indicates impact from sewage, fertilization and other sources of pollution.|
|50 (h, t)||The following information should always be provided: |
The water should not be given to children under 1 year of age due to the risk of methaemoglobinemia (impaired oxygen uptake into the blood).
|Nitrite||mg / l NO2||0.1 (h, t)||May indicate impact from pollution. Can be formed by ammonium oxidation in filters and pipe networks. May be found in deep wells due to lack of oxygen in the water. |
The following information should always be provided:
|0.50 (h)||Increased risk of methaemoglobinemia (impaired blood oxygen uptake). The water should not be used for drinking or food handling.|
|pH (hydrogen ion concentration)||<6.5||Low pH values entail a risk of corrosion on pipes that can lead to increased metal levels in drinking water. May indicate the influence of surface water or shallow groundwater. |
The pH value should be in the range 6.5-9.0.
|10.5 (h)||Probably caused by an overdose of alkaline agent or the release of lime from cement-coated pipes. Risk of damage to eyes and mucous membranes. The water cannot be used as drinking water.|
|Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)||/g / l||0.10 (h)||The guideline value should be applied to the sum of the contents of the following substances: benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo- (ghi) -perylene and indeno- (1,2,3-cd) -pyrene.|
|Radon||Bq / l||> 1000 (h)||Risk of health effects. The water should not be used for drinking or food handling. The greatest risk of health effects when inhaling radon-containing air, e.g. when showering. Radon from water, together with radon from soil and building materials, can give high concentrations in the residential air. In an individual property, the content can be reduced by vigorous aeration in radon separators or by other methods. To avoid increases in radon levels indoors, exhaust gas must be diverted away from the home.|
|Selenium||/g / l Se||10 (h)||Concentrations above the guideline value can be found naturally in the water.|
|Taste||Clear (s)||Deviating taste may indicate influence. Regarding the examination temperature, see comment on the parameter odor.|
|Clear (h)||The assessment is made when foreign taste indicates that the water is so polluted that it should not be used as drinking water.|
|Very strong||The assessment is made when the taste makes the water obviously disgusting.|
|Sulphate||mg / l SO4||100 (t)||Can accelerate corrosion attacks.|
(h, e, t)
|Risk of taste changes. May cause transient diarrhea in sensitive children.|
|Total hardness (calculated)||° dH||15 (t)||Formed by calcium and magnesium ions. Risk of precipitation in pipes, vessels and real estate installations, especially when heating. Damage to textiles when washing.|
|Turbidity||FNU||3||Is a measure of the turbidity of the water. The cause of abnormal changes should always be investigated. Indicates impact on surface water.|