Cooling or cooling technology is technology and engineering science that aims to lower the temperature in a place.
One distinguishes between passive cooling where heat is allowed to spread from a warmer place to a colder one, or active cooling where you "pump" heat from a place with a lower temperature to one with a higher one. The same method that is used in refrigerators and the like is also used in heat pumps.
Increased living standards around the world have meant an increased demand for various technologies in refrigeration technology. The classic area of application is in the food industry. In everyday life, refrigeration technology is used in refrigerators and freezers, for air treatment, comfort cooling and heat pumps and in sports facilities for artificial ice rinks. Large industrial applications of refrigeration technology are found in the chemical and process industries.
Ice has been used as a coolant for centuries. They "saved" ice to also be able to use it in warmer seasons. In the 16th century, people learned to use other methods to achieve a temperature lower than 0 ° C, for example by mixing salt and ice. In the 19th century, refrigeration processes began to be developed, and in 1834, the American Jacob Perkins applied for a patent that broadly describes the compressor refrigeration process, which is today's most widely used refrigeration method.
Refrigeration devices follow the laws of thermodynamics, which state how energy is converted and in which direction (see Thermodynamics). For a refrigeration machine, mechanical work (often electrical energy that is converted to mechanical energy in the compressor) is supplied to the system (the machine), which enables heat from the environment (for example ground, rock or air) to be “lifted” to a higher level (here then temperature) so that the energy can be used for utilities, that is, heating buildings. How much mechanical energy is needed depends on several things, partly the temperatures at which the heat is absorbed (the low temperature) and emitted at (the high temperature). The bigger the difference, the more work is needed. There is a theoretical limit, which is determined solely by these two temperatures, which corresponds to a circular process according to Carnot (Carnot process). There is no real machine that is so efficient, everyone is more or less inferior.
Types of cooling systems
Pioneers of modern refrigeration technology
- Charles Tellier
- Ferdinand Carré
Read the article on wikipedia
Synonyms for cooling
- cooling, Cooling down, temperature lowering