We are building a Questions & Answers database about heat pumps.
How to dimension correctly today when the second generation heat pump is to be purchased.
In many cases, the property has changed owners a few times since the time of the oil. The couple who in 2005 in connection with the conversion grant threw out their oil boiler and installed heat pump have long ago sold the house and in some cases moved to the nursing home. and just like in other houses in the neighborhood, the house is filled with younger families with children.
The need for hot water increases and the need for temperature increases. You want to build for the house, and also build a spa and relaxation area in the basement of the former hobby room or garage. To then go on previous electricity consumption is bedded for a troubled business and dissatisfied customer.
Energy inspection is attached to shops today, but if you go on these figures when dimensioning, it usually ends up in court.
The energy inspection is based on existing consumption and if it is a property that has been uninhabited from time to time during the past year, the energy consumption is clearly significantly lower. There have been several cases in court where the property owner got the right against the installer who went on the energy inspection figures when the court considered that they should have realized the errors.
A little strange reasoning and thus it is clear that the energy inspection works based on the seller's focus, low operating costs drive up the price of the shed.
A true calculation for a 70s house is to count 65 w per sqm of living space and 50 w per sqm of living space. . The number you then receive symbolizes the need for power on the coldest day of the year.
With this calculation, there is a margin as energy needs are not the same as the result on the electricity bill, but the energy needs are reduced with waste heat and radiant heat from the sun, people, animals, machines and cooking outside temp varying over time. The figures obtained there will be the consumption of the electricity meter. With a heat pump, this figure is reduced by 60-80%. Of course, the conditions change for other types of houses. Classic so-called Skåne lengths often have an energy requirement of 85-90 w per sqm and in some extreme cases even more. With clay stone walls, firewood and a total lack of insulation in both walls and ceilings, the energy needs and consumption really stand out. Usually also with not a significant amount of outer walls, as Skånelänger are referred to as horizontal skyscrapers. As a icing on the cake, it is usually located on the plains of Skåne.
Heat pump techniques with or without limits.
ONE air water heat pump requires air circulation, therefore you should avoid cramped courtyards or even worse hide the machine under patio decks, in carports etc. Placement on a roof, where the pump is free, can cause problems, so when placing the roof, you should make sure to have some form of wind protection behind the pump. In strong wind gusts, it simply blows too much for the heat pump to take advantage of the air.
In general, one should avoid placement on roofs, especially for future service repairs.
My journey in this world with heat pumps began in 2003 when I started working on the now long-gone Schildt's pipe in Åstorp. My boss was one of the pioneers of heat pumps in the 70's and became a very valuable mentor. Today we write 2020 in the calendar, 17 years have run away. And the development of heat pumps has accelerated. Today we are replacing the pumps that were installed in 2003 and onwards. But if you look closely at it, it does not matter how much more "lull lull" it comes on heat pumps, no matter how many heating systems and shunts can be controlled from the pump, it is and remains low temperature systems max 50-55 degrees, above these temperatures so shortens the service life, regardless of make.
3 F that I mentioned in a previous article must be met Flow Flow Flow.
Thus, I intend to take up a story about a property where the previous owner changed the compressor 2 times on a 10 year old ivt. Optima air water It was a large and solid house, the heat pump was 17 kw. The new owner decided to replace the heat pump, as the cost of repair became quite substantial.
The heating system in the house was also on the verge of inadequate, so the house was supplemented with 3 fan convectors. I have been frantically looking for the picture of the heat pump where it is built behind a fence, at the back of the garage. But have so far not been able to find it. The location as such also meant that the previous property owner and the neighbor were about to end up in the neighbor feud.
Well, a new heat pump was bought and installed and according to agreement, the location was next to the garage, but in the other direction so as not to disturb the neighbor.
When the lady of the house came home, World War III broke out between husband and wife. She did not want to see the pump from her kitchen window. The man then came up with the question of whether it could be set upright. After many long trips, the result was an additional invoice and a 15 meter longer cable, an easy way to get the machine on the back. As well as a disclaimer from long-term plumbing and the possible problems that would arise, this as it was impossible to go up one dimension in pipes, because the pipes were cast into the floor / wall. As a technician, you are sometimes surprised at how appearance is prioritized over function and economy. After all, the heating system is the heart of the house and the heat pump is the benefactor of the wallet.
Heat pump techniques with or without limits.
Cop and heat pumps speed control onoff.
Heat pumps are, as we all know, low temperature systems. By low temperature is meant a maximum of 50-55 degrees on supply on the coldest day of the year.
Cop and location
Today's heat pumps can perform a few degrees more at the expense of COP which is an abbreviation of Coefficient Of Performance, simply put, it can be described as efficiency, however, the word efficiency is actually banned, for efficiency can not be more than 1, but for the common man it is a word that most people understand the meaning of.
What then determines the cop In, for example, air water, it is the air temperature, the air flow rate and the temperature from the heat pump to the heating system.
Today's speed-controlled pumps are larger than ever, something that the lady of the house usually turns to when discussing a heat pump. But that's where we have our cop. When it gets colder outside, the energy in the air drops and to compensate for the energy loss in the air, the speed of the fan and even then of the compressor, which has a certain stroke volume, is increased. But as the speed increases, the flow of the refrigerant increases. And the effect is maintained further down in temperature.
To take an example.
Nibe 2120 with maximum power 12 kw gives at -18 as much as about 7 kw at 50 degrees supply temp. Fifteen years ago, the pumps were switched off at -7 / -10 depending on the brand in question. It was not considered profitable to operate below these temperatures. In today's pumps, the heat carrier pump is also speed-controlled and they usually control based on the so-called delta T, which means the difference between supply and return.
Heat pump techniques with or without limits.
No. The law states that the company must have an F-gas certificate and the installer must have a personal certificate, this according to the Refrigerant Ordinance SFS 2007: 846. These certificates are issued by INCERT (Installations Certification in Stockholm AB).
There is also a significant risk that the promised energy savings will not materialize in whole or in part if the heat pump is not installed correctly. Or the pump simply fails. In other words, a cheap heat pump can be an expensive deal.
Manufacturers do not have to give any indication of the heat pump's power or efficiency, but can set which model designations they want. However, it is common for the number 9 or 12 and 25 or 35 to be entered in the model designation. The numbers 9 and 12 generally mean that the heat pump has a nominal cooling effect of 9,000 and 12,000 BTU / h (British Thermal Unit), respectively. This gives 2.64 and 3.52 kW respectively. The numbers 25 and 35 respectively give a nominal cooling power of 2.5 and 3.5 kW respectively. Be aware that this is the effect when you cool with the heat pump and that the heat effect is always higher, this is because you can take advantage of the heat losses in the compressor. The "size" of the heat pump can be roughly compared with these figures. What the manufacturers mean by nominal power differs between the manufacturers. What you run for speed on the compressor and what the temperature is outside affects the heat pump's power.
Let an installer calculate what is needed in your particular case. It is possible to download a calculation program that makes it easier for installers and drillers to perform the calculation.
You can either turn off the heat pump or choose to use it to generate cold during the hot part of the year.
The efficiency of the air heat pump decreases at cold temperatures. Mitsubishi Electric's air heat pumps have the Hyper Heating function which means that on paper it can retain the effect down to -15 ° C and they can continue to provide heat down to -30 ° C.
Here, too, it varies depending on the model, but you can count on them generating more power than they consume in principle.
The distance varies between the different models and you should contact your installer for further advice, but this is rarely a problem but ten meters or more.
The temperature of the air heat pump can be set from + 10 ° C to + 30 ° C.
The heat pump defrosts through reversal, which means that the heat pump runs like a cooling machine during defrosting, but without blowing cold air into the home.
It is not possible to perform a defrost if the indoor temperature is below + 10 ° C as there is not enough heat. This can lead to the outdoor part suffering from abnormal icing.
Set the "heat balance" between the air source heat pump and the house's old heat source. You do this by setting the air heat pump to the temperature you experience provides comfortable heat and then set the thermostat on the elements so they provide a basic heat that is about 2-3 degrees lower than the air heat pump.
Then the elements will be switched on and provide heat if the air heat pump cannot handle it itself. When the air heat pump manages itself again, the elements will be switched off again.
Tip 1 - find the right room temperature
There is a heat scale on your heat pump's remote control, but it should not be seen as the temperature in the room but as just a scale, as the sensor is about 2 m up on the wall. To achieve the right temperature in the home, you can use an external thermometer or feel with your body what is suitable.
Tip 2 - adjust the heating effect
You can either raise the temperature and / or fan speed of the indoor unit if you feel it is too cold.
You should also do this if your elements start.
According to the Swedish Energy Agency, you get the best savings if you have a high fan speed on the heat pump's indoor part.
A question regarding an EIA 300. When heat demand no longer exists.
Should one then:
1: Switch to summer mode
2: let it stay this spring / autumn so the circus pump can run all summer as well?
It changes automatically according to the setting in menu 8.2.0. Provided that Auto operating mode is selected
Blacklist - warning for companies that ignore Arn. Unfortunately, it costs to see the list https://www.radron.se/svarta-listan/
- Twice a year, new companies are published on the Black List. The purpose is to warn of companies that do not follow the recommendations of the General Complaints Board, ARN.
- All cases on the list have been assessed by ARN, which has come to the conclusion that the companies have not complied with the consumer laws and consumer rules that exist in Sweden.
- The board is composed of parties and both industry and consumer are represented. The chairman is an experienced lawyer.
Source: Advice & Findings
The house must be at least 5 years old.
Yes then and if you set a fixed labor cost for an offered repair, the labor cost goes to the root, you have to add the transport cost separately. Root is usually only relevant when there are major repairs,
NOTE !!! No service steps included. Ie cleaning test drive etc.
When you order installation of, for example, heat pumps, you have the opportunity to use the root deduction.
Prerequisites for ROT deductions
You can make a maximum root deduction of SEK 50,000 per year. If you are two owners of the property, you can apply for root deductions together. This means that you can make a deduction of SEK 100,000.
The Swedish Tax Agency sets the following requirements for the root deduction to go through;
-You must have a Swedish social security number and be unlimitedly liable for tax in Sweden -You must be 18 years old -You must be the owner of the property where the project is carried out no later than the payment date -Your property must be at least 5 years old -You must have paid for the service -You must have paid enough tax
ROT deductions may be used by single-family homeowners, including allotment lots and holiday home owners, as well as tenant-owners. Tenancies are thus unfortunately not included, because then you are not the owner of the property. For condominiums, it is only possible to use root deductions for work performed indoors, since the outside is owned by the condominium association.
The company performing the installation must have an F-tax certificate.
Yes, here is the list from the Swedish Tax Agency of which services give the right to a tax reduction.
AIR HEAT PUMP
Labor cost for installation of air source heat pump entitles to a tax reduction
Labor costs for drilling and installation of geothermal heat entitle to a tax reduction.
Labor costs for installation or replacement of a heat pump give the right to a tax reduction.
It is possible to set in the service register via the remote control. The service manual describes how to do this.
There is no longer a certified heat pump installer, but you can be cold certified, then it is a test you do that shows that you know the rules for handling f-gases.
You become a certified heat pump technician at the polytechnic as well as a cooling technician.
Read more about Certified Cooling & Heat Pump Technician
A cooling and heat pump technician works with installation and service of both heat pumps and cooling systems, which also includes ventilation systems that are connected to the systems. The work can involve everything from building and installing facilities for larger buildings and premises, to performing service and installing small units and pumps. The practical tasks of a refrigeration and heat pump technician can include installing electrical components and pulling pipes.
Freezers, grocery stores and ice rinks use refrigeration systems while heat pumps are used in residential buildings, villas, offices and industries.
The size of the pool and whether it is covered or not obviously affects the heating cost. Covering the pool not only reduces energy leakage but also protects against leaves, insects and dirt. When you cover the pool, the energy consumption is around 70% lower than if it is not covered.
Example; A pool of 3 x 5 meters will be heated to 24 ° C between May and August. If it is covered with a so-called solar foil, the energy consumption will be just under 3,000 kWh, while it consumes around 9,000 kWh if it is not covered.
No, to avoid "cold starts" the machine should run even when it is really cold.
No, the indoor ambient temperature must be at least +10 ° C, or 16 ° C for models without low temperature function, for the air source heat pump to work properly. Therefore, an extra heat source is needed that can help if the heat pump is unable to heat the home or if it suffers an outage.
Yes, but you should think about a few things. Among other things, how much you will fire and how close the stove the indoor part of the heat pump is. You should always read the heat pump's instruction manual and ask your dealer for advice before installing the heat pump in the same room as the stove.
No, an air source heat pump is normally just an energy-saving heat source and needs to be used in combination with an existing heating system. You should check that your heating system is properly adjusted and that the thermostat works well to get the best possible savings. There should be an extra heat source that can help when it gets so cold that the heat pump is unable to keep the heat up itself. Examples of such sources are electric radiators and wood or pellet stoves.
How big a heat pump you need depends on how large an area is to be heated and what you have for electricity consumption today to keep good heat in the home. If you are unsure, you should always choose the larger model, an undersized heat pump wears faster and you risk not getting the best savings.
A heat pump works much like a reverse refrigerator. In a refrigerator, the heat is taken from inside the cabinet and then emitted on the back of the cabinet. The air heat pump, also called comfort heat pump, takes its heat energy from the outdoor air and the heat is then transferred to the circulating indoor air. Since the indoor part of the heat pump contains one or more filters, it can also improve the indoor air slightly. However, it does not improve the ventilation in the home. Normally you get about two to three kWh of heat to the home for each kWh used to run the heat pump.
Yes, one of the reasons why a geothermal heat pump is so versatile and efficient is its ability to heat and cool in one and the same system. With the push of a button on your indoor thermostat, the heat pump switches from heating to cooling.
Depending on where in Sweden you live, the hoses should be between 90 to 150 centimeters deep. The hoses do not have to lie at a frost-free depth.
No, as rock heat takes its heat from stored solar energy and it is renewable. However, to prevent excessive temperature drops in the ground, there should be at least 20 meters between neighbors' boreholes.
How much energy is required to heat your house is what determines how deep your borehole must be. The more rock heat you need, the deeper you have to drill to get what you need. The borehole depth is also affected by how far it is between the ground surface and the rock. The part of the borehole that passes through the soil layer must be lined with steel pipes that must also be driven down into the rock by at least 2 meters. The casing must also be driven down at least 6 meters into the ground according to the Energy Well standard. The most expensive part of the drilling is precisely the casing drilling. For example, if you have 8 meters to the rock, you will need to do at least 10 meters of casing drilling, because the casing must go at least 2 meters into the rock, and then drill to the depth required to cover your energy needs.
The installer calculates the borehole depth depending on soil conditions, energy requirements and the facility's specifications.
No, the temperature in the borehole is lowered, of course, but that lowering is compensated by more energy flowing in from the rock massif. About 5 years after you have installed the rock heat, the temperature should have stabilized and it will only be a few degrees lower than before drilling. The most important thing is that the heat pump does not take in more heat than is continuously supplied. A properly dimensioned borehole will be able to continue to supply heat for all time to come. The power output for a borehole is usually 10–30 W / m (per meter of borehole) during continuous operation and the further north in the country, the lower power output can be made without risking freezing of the borehole.
The cost of a geothermal heating installation can differ greatly between different cases, as in addition to the geothermal heat pump you also buy an installation, the cost of which depends a lot on what your installation conditions look like. It is often said that the price usually ends up between SEK 100,000 and 150,000. But even if geothermal heating is a costly investment, it pays off quickly as it can lower your energy costs significantly.
If your heat pump has that function, you have the opportunity to monitor and remotely control the heat pump with accessories from different manufacturers.
For both larger and smaller properties as well as households with medium to high energy consumption, geothermal heating is suitable. Despite the high investment cost, the reduced energy consumption leads to you saving money in the long run. However, geothermal heat is not so good if you have low energy consumption or have electrically heated elements as it will take too long to save the geothermal heat's high investment cost.
You can save up to 80% of your energy consumption with geothermal heat.
It would be technically possible, but the hole would need to be drilled deeper so that it can generate enough energy to satisfy several households. It may sometimes be necessary to drill several smaller holes to get the right amount of energy if the hole is not deep enough. This applies whether it is for one or more households.
It is possible to install geothermal heating all year round.
Where the rock begins and down is the active drilling depth. You can usually extract 1 kW for every 20 meters you drill.
To minimize risk factors and protect groundwater, SGU has compiled recommendations for the implementation of well drilling, the so-called standard well procedure.
Here is one pdf form with further information about Normbrunn-07 from SGU
NOTE !!! The new guide for drilling a well is called Normbrunn-16
It is illegal to perform an installation without a permit and you can also be prosecuted. There is also a penalty fee, a so-called environmental sanction fee and also fees for the processing, of SEK 3,000 issued by the environmental administration.
There are rules regarding, among other things, the duty to report, annual inspection and reporting if you have a refrigerant of 10 kg or more, this according to the regulation that came into force in January 2018
Far down in the bedrock is stored heat energy, this is what is retrieved when you have rock heat. The temperature at different depths is basically the same all year round and the further down you drill the higher the temperature you get. It is normal to drill between 120-240 meters where the temperature is somewhere between 2-8 ° C.nnWhen the borehole is in place for two hoses (welded together at the bottom) down into the borehole. In the hoses there is an antifreeze that is pumped up to the house's heat pump where the heat energy, which it has collected in the bedrock, is given off. When the antifreeze has cooled in the heat pump, the liquid is transported back into the bedrock again to collect new heat energy. The system in a rock heating solution is closed so the antifreeze never comes into contact with the groundwater.
Submit a request for interest when you are interested in a heat pump quote or if you want service for your heat pump.